人与机器
成功案例17.09.2018

全自动生产

机器人应用于高品质瓷器餐具加工

概述

如今瓷器生产过程中仍存在大量手工作业。但在高端瓷器品牌商 Rosenthal,机器人正发挥着重要作用,公司高价值产品的生产得以轻松达到卓越质量标准。此外,自动化生产体系确保了公司德国工厂拥有持续竞争力。

Rosenthal公司成立于1879年,目前拥有约800名员工,公司在德国 Selb和Speicherersdorf的两个生产基地年产量共约 1300万件,包括餐桌瓷器、高档内饰产品、礼品、灯具、花瓶、艺术品等等。公司所获的500余项设计奖正是产品精湛品质的最佳证明。

但是在一个竞争激烈的市场,仅凭质量不足以保持长期的竞争力,正如Rosenthal制造与采购部经理Gerhard Limmer所说:“产品的设计和质量是我们在全球范围内取得成功的关键因素。但即使是我们,也不得不遵循这一行业的传统:准时交货、质量可靠、高速度、高效、和高柔性。所以这段时间我们已经在生产过程中引入机器人,近期我们还决定投入新的、更高效的生产体系,配备性能更强的史陶比尔六轴机器人。”这些新型机器人被用于两种完全不同的生产过程——高压铸造和干压。

高压铸造后全自动搬运

在方形和椭圆形板材生产的铸造工艺中,液态瓷泥被泵入一个由两部分组成的多孔塑料模具内,并接受高压处理。水从开孔流出后,模具内瓷器生成。接下来打开模具取出瓷器,后续加工由一台机器人完成。

两种全新的高压设备是为了让机器人承担尽可能多地工作量,这需要工作半径长、负载高且精度高的全能型机器人。史陶比尔六轴机器人 RX160 成为最佳选择。

RX160 的工作内容包括从模具中取出产品,去除熔渣,红外干燥,海绵擦拭,并将产品送回生产线进行进一步加工。两个相同的工作单元各配备一个自动工具快换系统,通过这个系统RX160 可以为自己选择合适的夹爪,完成所有工作任务。

在压铸单元中,工作半径达1710mm的RX160 手臂可轻松覆盖所有工作站。“在这种类型的生产线上,精度、可靠性和速度是至关重要的因素,” Rosenthal自动化工程师Manuel Weiß说,“在这些方面,机器人出色地满足了我们的期望。”

干压成型的产能提升

Rosenthal的另一条生产线诠释了现代机器人促进干袋等静压技术自动化的潜力。这种方法通常用于制作扁平餐具。陶瓷颗粒在模具中进行280bar 左右高压的均匀压制。这是一个相当高效的过程,具有许多好处,包括质量提升,比如使餐盘和餐具的质地非常均匀和统一。

得益于史陶比尔六轴机器人所拥有的高性能和高精度,以及能有效抵抗灰尘和研磨颗粒侵入的封闭式设计,干压产线上使用了三台相同的TX90,处理相同的工作任务。

首先,机器人用真空夹爪从旋转台上取下一个待加工的餐盘,并将其运送到砂磨工位。在这里,TX90机器人引导餐盘在砂磨带上精准打磨,直到毛刺被完全清除。接下来是通过海绵对其外部轮廓和边缘进行双重擦拭。史陶比尔机器人以精准力度沿着旋转的海绵移动餐盘。这一过程对成品瓷器的外观起着至关重要的作用,正是机器人轨迹精度尤为重要的原因。

之后,机器人通过旋转台将餐盘输送回生产线,接受950°C高温的第一次烧制。在经过上釉之后,餐盘最终进行1400°C 的高温烘烤。

高精度的史陶比尔六轴TX90机器人,对完成干压成型后的餐盘进行了细致的海绵擦拭,确保它的完美品质。

机器人实现最佳柔性

“目前大约有400个不同的产品经过干压成型生产线,”Weiß补充道,“因为批量大小经常出现大幅波动,更换产线上的产品可能会一天发生好几次。现在机器人的高柔性带来很多好处,操作人员主要做的就是更换真空夹爪。不过,许多产品可以使用同一个夹爪完成搬运。”无论何时推出新的产品,Rosenthal都会受益于机器人的可示教性和离线编程功能选项。

根据产品类型,干压产线每批次产出从500件到1000件不等。现代化、高性能机器人自动化技术的应用已经彻底革新了Rosenthal的生产模式。过去限制产量的因素是机器人,而现在则是成型机。生产力因此受到巨大冲击:得益于最先进的自动化技术,Rosenthal的生产力提高了20%。

但成本效益的提升并不是这项投资背后的唯一原因,正如 Gerhard Limmer所解释的那样:

由于史陶比尔机器人的卓越性能和出色的轨迹精度,我们现在可以用自动化的工艺技术生产外形更复杂多样的精美瓷器。正是这种力求完美的热情,以及对产品质量和设计标准的探索实践,我们的品牌和德国生产基地在未来的竞争中才能始终保持优势。

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